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Thursday, January 31, 2019

How to claim universal credit

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      How to claim universal credit

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Apply for Universal Credit

There are 4 steps to getting Universal Credit. You’ll need to:
  1. gather everything you’ll need to apply
  2. set up an online account
  3. use your account to start a claim
  4. arrange an interview at the Jobcentre within 7 days of starting your claim
It’s worth checking you’ve been through all 4 steps - otherwise you might not get your Universal Credit payment.
If you live with your partner, you’ll usually need to apply together - called a ‘joint claim’.

If you have problems using the internet 

You can only claim Universal Credit online - there’s no paper form.
If you aren’t confident using the internet, ask your local council about help getting online.
You might be able to apply by phone or in person instead of online.
You’ll need to tell the DWP why you can’t apply online, for example if you have problems reading or writing.
Contact the Universal Credit helpline if you need to apply by phone or in person. Someone else can call for you.
Universal Credit helpline (full service)Telephone: 0800 328 5644
Textphone: 0800 328 1344
Telephone (Welsh language): 0800 012 1888
Monday to Friday, 8am to 6pm
Calls to these numbers are free. It’s best to call from the phone number you gave the DWP when you set up your Universal Credit account. You'll have a shorter wait and be put through to the same person who handled previous calls you've made.
The application can take up to 40 minutes on the phone.

If you don’t have internet access

You can use the internet free of charge at:

Applying at the right time

Usually it’s best to apply for Universal Credit as soon as you can. That way you’ll get your first payment sooner.
If you’ve lost your job, it can be worth waiting until you get your final payment from work. If you apply before then, your last payment will reduce your first Universal Credit payment.
It can still be better to apply for Universal Credit straight away if you’d have to wait a long time for your last payment or if you don’t expect to be paid very much. Contact your nearest Citizens Advice if you’re not sure when to apply.

1. Gather everything you’ll need to apply

Getting all your details together in advance will save you time and make it easier to apply. If you’re making a joint claim, your partner will need their details too.
One of the later steps is going to a Universal Credit interview. You’ll need to take the same details to that, so it’s worth keeping everything to hand.
You’ll need details of your:
  • National Insurance number
  • housing
  • income and savings
  • childcare situation
  • other benefits, if you get any

Your National Insurance number

You can find your National Insurance number on a payslip or letter from HM Revenue and Customs - call the National Insurance helpline if you can’t find it.
HM Revenue and Customs National Insurance Helpline for employees and individuals
Tel: 0300 200 3500 (Monday to Friday from 8.00am to 5.00pm)
Textphone: 0300 200 3519
If you don’t have one, apply for a National Insurance number on GOV.UK.

Your housing situation

You’ll need to know:
  • your postcode
  • the type of accommodation you have - for example private rental, council tenancy or housing association tenancy
  • how much rent you pay
  • any service charges you pay
  • your landlord’s address and phone number
All these details should be on your rent agreement - if you don’t have one, ask your landlord for a copy or for a letter with details of your agreement.
If you own your home you’ll need to know:
  • your postcode
  • your monthly mortgage or home loan payments
  • any service charges you pay

Your income and savings

You’ll need details of:
  • your bank, building society, credit union or Post Office card account - if you don’t have one, you'll need to open an account or use the Payment Exception Service
  • how much you earn from work, such as recent payslips, or accounts or receipts if you’re self-employed
  • any income that’s not from work - for example from a pension or insurance plan
  • any savings and other capital you have - for example shares or property you don’t live in

Your family

You’ll need to know:
  • how much you pay for childcare (if you want to claim for childcare costs)
  • child benefit reference numbers
You can find child benefit reference numbers on letters to you about child benefit. The reference numbers start with 'CHB' and are made up of 8 numbers and 2 letters - like this: ‘CHB12345678 AB’.
Phone the Child Benefit Office on 0300 200 3100 (textphone 0300 200 3103) if you need help.

Other benefits you’re getting

You’ll need details of any other benefits you’re getting, including how much you get.
You should also tell the DWP if you or your partner are getting any of the benefits Universal Credit is replacing. Otherwise you could get the wrong benefit payments and will have to pay them back to the DWP.
Once you start getting Universal Credit it’s worth checking that your other benefit payments have stopped. If they haven’t, tell the DWP to make sure you don’t get an overpayment.
Universal Credit helpline (full service)Telephone: 0800 328 5644
Textphone: 0800 328 1344
Telephone (Welsh language): 0800 012 1888
Monday to Friday, 8am to 6pm
Calls to these numbers are free. It’s best to call from the phone number you gave the DWP when you set up your Universal Credit account. You'll have a shorter wait and be put through to the same person who handled previous calls you've made.
If you or your partner are still getting Child Tax Credit or Working Tax Credit payments, you’ll need to tell HM Revenue and Customs rather than the DWP.
HM Revenue and Customs Tax Credits Payment Helpline
Tel: 0345 302 1429 (Monday to Friday from 8.00am to 8.00pm; Saturday from 8.00am to 4.00pm)

2. Set up your online account

You’ll need to apply for Universal Credit online on GOV.UK. 
You’ll need an email address to apply. If you don’t have one, find out how to set up an email address on Which?
You don't have to apply in one go - you can save your progress and come back later. But it's worth finishing as soon as you can, as your claim can't start until you've finished the whole process. 

If you’re making a joint claim

You and your partner will need to set up separate accounts.
When you set up your account you’ll be asked if you live with your partner. If you say yes you can get a ‘linking code’. When your partner sets up their account they can type in this linking code to join their account to yours.
You’ll both be able to log in to your accounts separately.

3. Use your account to start your claim

This is separate from setting up your account. It’s worth starting your claim as soon as you can, as it will mean you get your Universal Credit payment sooner.
Log in to your Universal Credit account using the details you got when you set the account up. If you can’t remember your details you can click on ‘Problems signing in?’ to ask the DWP to send them to your email address.
Once you’ve logged in, you’ll see a ‘to do’ list. You’ll need to go through the list answering questions about your situation. If you’re making a joint claim you’ll see your partner’s to do list as well. They’ll have to log into their account to answer some of the questions.

Confirming your identity

One of the items on your to-do list says ‘Verify your identity online’. This takes you to a government system called ‘Verify’ to confirm your identity.
Verify can be difficult to complete. If you’re having problems, go back to your Universal Credit account and click on ‘I can’t do this online’. You can then skip this step and confirm your identity at the Jobcentre instead.

4. Arrange an interview at the Jobcentre

You’ll need to arrange an interview at your local Jobcentre within 7 days of applying online. If you don’t arrange the interview in time you might have to start your application for Universal Credit again.
You should be given a phone number to call to arrange your interview after you apply online. You’ll need your National Insurance number when you make the call.
If you aren't given a phone number, call the Universal Credit helpline to arrange your interview.
Universal Credit helpline (full service)Telephone: 0800 328 5644
Textphone: 0800 328 1344
Telephone (Welsh language): 0800 012 1888
Monday to Friday, 8am to 6pm
Calls to these numbers are free. It’s best to call from the phone number you gave the DWP when you set up your Universal Credit account. You'll have a shorter wait and be put through to the same person who handled previous calls you've made.
The person you speak to when you arrange your interview will tell you where your interview is and what documents to take with you.
After you’ve arranged the interview you’ll be able to find details about it in your online Universal Credit account.

If you can’t go to a Jobcentre interview

You should still call if an interview will be difficult for you because you’re ill or disabled. You can ask the Jobcentre to change things to make it easier for you - this is called a ‘reasonable adjustment’. For example, you can ask for a British Sign Language interpreter, or for your interview to be at a place you can get to easily.
If the Jobcentre refuse to make changes for your illness or disability, check if they’ve failed to make a reasonable adjustment. If they have, remind the Jobcentre that this could be discrimination. You can consider taking action about discrimination if they still won’t do anything. 

Apply for Council Tax Reduction

Once you’ve applied for Universal Credit, check if you can get Council Tax Reduction. Most people who get Universal Credit can claim this too.
If you already get Council Tax Reduction, contact your council straight away to tell them you’ve applied for Universal Credit. Ask them to keep giving you Council Tax Reduction. Otherwise they might end your Council Tax Reduction when the DWP tell them you’re getting Universal Credit.

If your application is unsuccessful

The DWP will send you a letter if your application is unsuccessful. You can ask them to reconsider the decision if you think it’s wrong.
If you’re struggling to get by, check what other help and financial support you could get.

Wednesday, January 30, 2019

How to sleep quickly

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            How to sleep quickly

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15 Science-Backed Ways To Fall Asleep Faster

Can’t sleep? Join the club. Insomnia affects almost half of U.S. adults 60 and older, says the National Institutes of Health.
Unless certain medical conditions or medications are the cause of your sleeplessness, the most common culprit is anxiety, says Lisa Meltzer, an education scholar for the National Sleep Foundation and associate professor of pediatrics at National Jewish Health in Denver. “If you’re anxious and worried, it’s very difficult to relax and fall asleep,” says Meltzer. “When you’re not sleeping well, you’ll be more anxious and you’ll have a harder time regulating emotion. It feeds on itself.”
Want to coax yourself into dreamland as soon as you hit the sack? Try the following scientifically-supported methods, that include relaxation techniques, distraction exercises, and more ways to prepare your body for slumber.

Try to force yourself to stay awake

Is there anything reverse psychology isn’t good for? In this case, it may alleviate excessive sleep anxiety. A small study conducted at the University of Glasgow found that sleep-onset insomniacs who were instructed to lay in bed and try to stay awake with their eyes open fell asleep quicker than participants told to fall asleep without this “paradoxical intention” (PI). Participants in the PI group fell asleep easier and showed less sleep performance anxiety.

“I always tell people, sleep is the one thing in life where the harder you try and the harder you work at it, the more likely it is you’ll fail,” says Meltzer. “Reverse psychology is not a long-term solution, but it can help.”

Get up and do something for 10 minutes

If you wake up in the night and can’t get back to sleep within 15 minutes or so, get out of bed and do an activity that requires your hands and your head, like a jigsaw puzzle or a coloring book, says Richard Wiseman, professor for the Public Understanding of Psychology at the University if Hertfordshire and author of Night School: Wake up to the power of sleep. Stay away from the TV and digital screens, whose blue light has been proven to suppress melatonin, a sleep-inducing hormone. “The key is to avoid associating your bed with being awake,” Wiseman says in his 59 Seconds video.
“This is a stimulus control theory,” says Meltzer. “Everything in life has a stimulus value, even your bed,” meaning your body should recognize that lying in bed means it’s time to go to sleep. To give your bed that value, the only things you should be doing in it are sleep and sex, she explains. “Getting out of bed if you can’t sleep is the hardest one to do, but it’s so important. If you’re spending 10 hours in bed, but only sleeping six, that’s really bad. Your bed becomes a place for thinking, worrying, watching TV, and not for sleeping.”

Hide your clock

You toss and turn, trying to fall asleep, watching the minutes tick toward morning on your bedside clock. Does this scenario sound familiar? Do yourself a favor: Hide the clock. Constantly checking the time only increases your stress, making it harder to turn down the dial on your nervous system and fall asleep. “If you stare at the clock, it increases your stress and worry about not falling asleep,” says Meltzer.

Cool your room

Did you know your internal body temperature is integral to regulating your biological body clock? When you’re falling asleep, your body temperature drops slightly, which some experts believe actually helps the process along, according to the Harvard Medical School. The National Sleep Foundation recommends a bedroom temperature of 60 to 67 degrees F for the most sleep-friendly conditions.
“The secret is cool, dark, comfortable bedrooms,” says Meltzer. “Darkness cues the brain to make melatonin, which tells your interior clock that it’s time to sleep. Melatonin cools your internal body temperature, which reaches its lowest point between 2 and 4 a.m.”

Take a warm shower before bed

Warming your body up with a hot shower an hour before bed and then stepping into cooler air will cause your body temperature to drop more precipitously. Studies show that this rapid temperature decrease slows your metabolism faster and prepares your body for sleep. “Showers can also be very relaxing, so that helps, too,” says Meltzer. If you shower every night around the same time, making it part of a consistent bedtime routine, you’ll see the most sleep value from it, she adds. “Then your body has an expectation of what’s coming next.”

Wear socks to bed

Researchers from a Swiss study published in the journal Nature observed that warm feet and hands were the best predictor of rapid sleep onset. In the study, participants placed a hot water bottle at their feet, which widened the blood vessels on the surface of the skin, thereby increasing heat loss. Shifting blood flow from your core to your extremities cools down your body, working in concert with melatonin.

Immerse your face in very cold water for 30 seconds

If you’re anxious or distressed at bedtime, the best medicine may be a face full of ice-cold water. When you’re in a full-on state, your nervous system desperately needs to be reset to help you calm down. Submerging your face in a bowl of cold water triggers an involuntary phenomenon called the Mammalian Dive Reflex, which lowers your heart rate and blood pressure. Then it’s off to bed with a soothed system.

Use the “4-7-8” method

Championed by best-selling author Dr. Andrew Weil—and various wellness bloggers, the “4-7-8” breathing technique is purported to help you fall asleep in under a minute. The method is said to relax you by increasing the amount of oxygen in your blood stream, slowing your heart rate, and releasing more carbon dioxide from the lungs. According to, here’s how you do it:
  1. Place the tip of your tongue against the ridge of tissue just behind your upper front teeth, and keep it there through the entire exercise.
  2. Exhale completely through your mouth, making a whoosh sound.
  3. Close your mouth and inhale quietly through your nose to a mental count of four.
  4. Hold your breath for a count of seven.
  5. Exhale completely through your mouth, making a whoosh sound to a count of eight.
  6. Repeat the cycle three more times for a total of four breaths.

Scent your bedroom with lavender

Not only does lavender smell lovely, but the aroma of this flowering herb may also relax your nerves, lower your blood pressure, and put you in a relaxed state. A 2005 study at Wesleyan University found that subjects who sniffed lavender oil for two minutes at three, 10-minute intervals before bedtime increased their amount of deep sleep and felt more vigorous in the morning.
“Some people respond really well to scents,” says Meltzer. “If they’re breathing it in deeply, it can help them clear their minds. Also, if it’s part of a bedtime routine, that might be the secret.”

Picture your favorite place

Rather than counting sheep, visualize an environment that makes you feel calm and happy. The key to success is thinking of a scene that’s engaging enough to distract you from your thoughts and worries for a while. In an Oxford University study published in the journal Behavior Research and Therapy, insomniacs who were instructed to imagine a relaxing scene, such as a beach or a waterfall, fell asleep 20 minutes faster than insomniacs who were told to count sheep or do nothing special at all.
“As adults, finding ways to manage stress can get lost, but it is so important,” says Meltzer.

Listen to music

Studies have shown that classical music, or any music that has a slow rhythm of 60 to 80 beats per minute, can help lull you to sleep. In a 2008 study, students aged 19 to 28 who listened to relaxing classical music for 45 minutes before bed showed significant improvement in sleep quality. Bonus: They also reported decreased symptoms of depression.

Eat dinner by candlelight

When it comes to sleep, the less blue light you expose yourself to in the hours before bedtime, the better. Light of any kind can suppress your body’s production of melatonin, but blue light waves do so more powerfully, thereby shifting sleep-friendly circadian rhythms, says Harvard Health Publications. Besides electronic devices like tablets and smartphones, the biggest blue-light offenders in your home are likely fluorescent lightbulbs and LED lights, which many people use because of their energy efficiency and powerful light. Give yourself a romantic break from all the blue and eat dinner by candlelight.

Blow bubbles

Got grandkids? That means you probably have a plastic bottle of bubbles around the house. The benefits of blowing them before bed are two-fold: Bubbles are slightly hypnotic to look at and require a process of deep breathing to blow, said Rachel Marie E. Salas, M.D., a professor of neurology at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, in a recent New York Post article. “It’s like a deep breathing exercise, which helps calm your body and mind,” she says. “And since it’s such a silly activity, it can also take your mind off of any potential sleep-thwarting thoughts.”

Practice progressive relaxation

Recommended by the National Sleep Foundation as a way to fall asleep fast, progressive muscle relaxation involves slowly tensing and then relaxing each muscle in your body to help your body relax. The Mayo Clinic describes the technique as follows:
Start by tensing and relaxing the muscles in your toes and progressively working your way up to your neck and head. You can also start with your head and neck and work down to your toes. Tense your muscles for at least five seconds and then relax for 30 seconds, and repeat.
“I encourage patients to try progressive relaxation,” says Meltzer. “It’s not enough by itself, but in combination with other things, it definitely makes a huge difference.”

Give yourself acupressure

Derived from acupuncture, acupressure is an alternative medicine technique based in the Chinese medical theory that a network of energy flows through specific points in your body. Pressing on these points is meant to restore balance and regulate your mind, body, and spirit. A faculty member from leading natural health university Bastyr University suggests these acupressure techniques to alleviate sleeplessness:
  • Between your eyebrows, there is a small depression on the level of your brows, right above the nose. Apply gentle pressure to that point for a minute.
  • Between your first and second toes, on top of the foot, there is a depression. Press that area for a few minutes until you feel a dull ache. 
  • Imagine that your foot has three sections, beginning at the tips of your toes and ending at the back of your heel. Find the distance one-third back from the tips of your toes and press on the sole of your foot for a few minutes. 
  • Massage both of your ears for a minute.

Monday, January 28, 2019

How to mute phone on conference call

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How to mute phone on conference call

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How Do I Mute My Phone During a Conference Call

The ability to host or participate in a conference call from almost anywhere is a technological advantage that allows for convenient interaction with your clients or employees. Calls taken in noisy locations, however -- such as at home with the kids around, a crowded café or even a busy office -- can disrupt the conversation for everyone. Muting your cellphone or landline allows the meeting to proceed without any audible distractions.

Silencing Your Phone

Muting most cellphones and landlines requires just a single push of the mute button. The button location can vary by phone. It's usually on the keypad on landlines -- tap it to mute and when the call is finished, tap it again to return to normal operating mode. The mute button on cellphones is also usually located on the keypad and requires only a tap to activate. On the iPhone 6, for example, you can hit the microphone icon on the keypad to silence your side of the call, then touch it again when you want to add to the conversation. If you're unable to locate the mute button on your phone, press *6 (Star 6) and this should mute the call.


  • If you're using a headset, muting it can serve as an alternative to muting your phone. The mute button is usually located near the volume and on/off controls.

When You're the Host

When you host a conference call with a large number of participants, there's always the risk that someone will forget to mute their phone and disrupt the meeting with background noise. Many conference call services allow the host to mute the phones of everyone calling into the meeting. For example, AT&T’s TeleConference Services requires that the host push 8 on her phone to do this after she activates the call. The function is disabled for each attendee when he hangs up.

Sunday, January 27, 2019

How to suppress hunger

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            How to suppress hunger

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Ten natural ways to suppress appetite

An appetite suppressant is a food, supplement, or other method that stops a person from feeling hungry. Some methods are more effective for suppressing appetite than others.
Manufacturers of appetite suppressant pills make big claims about the ability of pills to suppress appetite and promote weight loss. However, the effectiveness of these pills is not known, and according to the National Institutes of Health (NIH), they often come with dangerous side effects.
Instead, a person can use a range of natural methods to suppress or lose their appetite in a risk-free, healthful way.
In this article, we give a list of evidence-based methods that a person can use to suppress their appetite without the need for diet pills. We also discuss which foods are the best appetite suppressants.

Natural appetite suppressants

A person can use the following ten evidence-based methods to suppress their appetite and avoid overeating:

1. Eat more protein and healthful fats

high protein food
Eating foods rich in protein or fat can reduce hunger cravings and suppress appetite.
Not all foods satisfy hunger equally. Compared to carbohydrates, protein and certain fats are more effective for satisfying hunger and keeping people feeling full for longer.
A person can replace some sources of carbohydrate with proteins and healthful fats to help keep their appetite under control.
The Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend the following high-protein foods:
  • lean meats
  • eggs
  • beans and peas
  • soy products
  • Greek yogurt
The guidelines also recommend that a person gets their healthful fats from natural sources such as nuts and seeds, avocados, and olive oil.

2. Drink water before every meal

Drinking a large glass of water directly before eating has been found to make a person feel fuller, more satisfied, and less hungry after the meal.
Another study, which looked at appetite in 50 overweight females, showed that drinking 1.5 liters of water a day for 8 weeks caused a reduction in appetite and weight, and also led to greater fat loss.
A soup starter may also quench the appetite. Research from 2007 showed that people reported feeling fuller immediately after the meal if they had a liquid starter.

3. Eat more high-fiber foods

Fiber does not break down like other foods, so it stays in the body for longer. This slows down digestion and keeps people feeling full throughout the day.
Research suggests that fiber can be an effective appetite suppressant. High-fiber diets are also associated with lower obesity rates.
On the other hand, another review found that introducing extra fiber into the diet was effective in less than half of the studies they looked at.
More research is needed to identify which sources of fiber are the most effective for suppressing appetite.
Healthful high-fiber foods include:
  • whole grains
  • beans and pulses
  • apples and avocados
  • almonds
  • chia seeds
  • vegetables

4. Exercise before a meal

Exercise is another healthy and effective appetite suppressant.
A review based on 20 different studies found that appetite hormones are suppressed immediately after exercise, especially high-intensity workouts.
They found lower levels of ghrelin in the body, a hormone that makes us hungry, and higher levels of "fullness hormones" such as PPY and GLP-1.

5. Drink Yerba Maté tea

Research shows that a tea called Yerba Maté, which comes from the Ilex paraguariensis plant, can reduce appetite and improve mood when combined with high-intensity exercise.

6. Switch to dark chocolate

Dark chocolate has been shown to suppresses appetite compared to milk chocolate. One study showed that people ate less during their next meal after snacking on dark instead of milk chocolate.

7. Eat some ginger

Consuming a small amount of ginger powder has been shown to reduce appetite and increase fullness, possibly because of its stimulating effect on the digestive system. This was a small-scale study, so more research is needed to confirm this effect.

8. Eat bulky, low-calorie foods

Reducing general food intake while dieting can leave people with a ravenous appetite. This can cause a relapse into binge eating.
However, dieting does not have to mean going hungry. Some foods are high in nutrients and energy, but low in calories. These include vegetables, fruits, beans, and whole grains.
Eating a large volume of these foods will stop the stomach from growling and still allow a person to burn more calories than they consume.

9. Stress less

Comfort eating due to stress, anger, or sadness is different from physical hunger.
Research has linked stress with an increased desire to eat, binge eating, and eating non-nutritious food.
Mindfulness practices and mindful eating may reduce stress-related binge eating and comfort eating, according to one review. Regular sleep, social contact, and time spent relaxing can also help tackle stress.

10. Mindful eating

The brain is a major player in deciding what and when a person eats. If a person pays attention to the food they are eating instead of watching TV during a meal, they may consume less.
Research published in the journal Appetite found that eating a huge meal in the dark led people to consume 36 percent more. Paying attention to food during meals can help a person reduce overeating.
Another article showed that mindfulness might reduce binge eating and comfort eating, which are two significant factors that influence obesity.
The National Institute of Health recommend using mind and body-based techniques, such as meditation and yoga, to curb appetite.

Foods that minimize appetite

Certain foods are better for suppressing appetite than others, including:

  • Protein-rich foods and healthful fats. These include lean meats, avocado, beans, nuts, and cheese.
  • High-fiber foods. Fiber-rich foods keep a person feeling fuller for longer. Good examples are whole grains, beans, fruits, and vegetables.
  • Pulses, such as beans, lentils, and chickpeas, can directly increase feelings of fullness and may also reduce food intake later, according to a 2017 review.
  • Eggs are high in protein and fat and may promote feelings of fullness and reduce hunger through the day.
  • Cayenne pepper may reduce appetite in people who are not used to spicy foods.
  • Honey may suppress the hunger hormone ghrelin, making people feel fuller for longer. People should try switching from sugar to honey.


Restricting food consumption too much can lead to a relapse of overeating. Instead, eating a good amount of the right foods can reduce hunger and food cravings throughout the day.
A person can suppress their appetite by including more protein, fat, and fiber in their meals. Stocking up on vegetables and pulses can make a person feel fuller for longer.
It might also help to try different spices, such as ginger and cayenne pepper, and drink tea to beat unwanted food cravings.

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